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【亚博平台地址】俄罗斯天然气公司,有多强?



发布日期:2021-03-07 01:40:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

NO.260, black onion/text

NO.260,黑洋葱/文字

Galia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland are completely dependent on Russia for their natural gas supply. In the other seven countries, at least half of their natural gas comes from Russia. Germany, France, Italy and other core EU member states have 28%, 9%, and 38% dependence on Russian natural gas. In the long-term energy cooperation, Gazprom has accounted for a quarter of the total imported natural gas in Europe.

加利亚,捷克共和国,爱沙尼亚,拉脱维亚,立陶宛和芬兰完全依赖俄罗斯提供天然气。在其他七个国家中,至少有一半的天然气来自俄罗斯。德国,法国,意大利和其他欧盟核心成员国对俄罗斯天然气的依赖程度分别为28%,9%和38%。在长期的能源合作中,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司占欧洲天然气进口总量的四分之一。

School/Windcatcher Painting/A humanistic dog Picture/Geyuan Valley

学校/捕风者画/人文狗图片/葛源谷

Gazprom is the world’s largest natural gas producer and once ranked third in the world’s top 500 companies. It is also a giant enterprise integrating economic privilege and political aura in Russia. Surrounded by multiple glory, Gazprom has gained superpower unmatched by any company in the world, and it was once regarded as a double barometer of Russian politics and economy.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司是世界上最大的天然气生产商,曾经在世界500强公司中排名第三。它也是在俄罗斯整合经济特权和政治光环的巨型企业。俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在多重荣耀的包围下获得了世界上任何一家公司都无法比拟的超级大国,它曾经被视为俄罗斯政治和经济的双重晴雨表。

The headquarters of Gazprom in Moscow﹀

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在莫斯科的总部

From Xinhua News Agency

来自新华社

Industry monopolist under resource nationalism

资源民族主义下的产业垄断

The glory of Gazprom can be traced back to the construction of the Saratov line, the first natural gas pipeline in the Soviet Union. This is because Beria, who is under one person and over 10,000 people, is the person in charge of this natural gas pipeline.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的荣耀可以追溯到萨拉托夫线的建设,这是苏联第一条天然气管道。这是因为负责这个天然气管道的人不到1人且超过10,000人的Beria。

As a high-level Soviet Communist Party responsible for the development of the Soviet atomic bomb and the construction of natural gas pipelines at the same time, Beria has brought unparalleled political advantages to the Soviet natural gas industry and made the outside world believe that the Soviet natural gas industry and the atomic bomb are equally important.

作为同时负责开发苏联原子弹和建设天然气管道的高级苏联共产党,贝里亚为苏联天然气工业带来了无与伦比的政治优势,并使外界相信苏联天然气工业和原子弹同样重要。

Beria in the limelight﹀

贝里亚在风头﹀

Afterwards, I was overjoyed because I continued to find huge natural gas fields such as Urengoy, Medvegi, Zapoliaro, Yamburg and Povalenko (about one-third of the world's recoverable natural gas reserves). The Soviet Union established the Ministry of Natural Gas (the predecessor of Gazprom) in 1965.

之后,我喜出望外,因为我继续找到巨大的天然气田,例如Urengoy,Medvegi,Zapoliaro,Yamburg和Povalenko(约占世界可采天然气储备的三分之一)。苏联于1965年成立了天然气部(俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的前身)。

Since then, after the era of Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Gorbachev, on the eve of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the entire natural gas industry of the Soviet Union has formed a huge scale that shocked the world under the control of the Ministry of Natural Gas.

从那以后,在赫鲁晓夫,勃列日涅夫和戈尔巴乔夫时代解体后,苏联解体前夕,苏联的整个天然气工业已经形成了巨大规模,震惊了全世界,由其控制。天然气。

Different from other state-owned enterprises after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the company has established an efficient and flexible modern enterprise management system under the leadership of Chernomyrdin, the then Minister of Natural Gas of the Soviet Union.

与苏联解体后的其他国有企业不同,该公司在时任苏联天然气部长切尔诺木丁的领导下建立了高效灵活的现代企业管理体系。

Under the promotion of Chernomyrdin, he built the Russian Gas Ministry into a foolish organization like the Eni Group of Italy. As Chernomyrdin said, "Under the constraints of the system, even if a fool is allowed to manage the organization, it can still function well."

在Chernomyrdin的推动下,他将俄罗斯天然气部组建为一个愚蠢的组织,例如意大利的Eni集团。正如Chernomyrdin所说:“在系统的约束下,即使允许傻瓜来管理组织,它仍然可以正常运行。”

Chernomyrdin and Yeltsin, the then President of Russia﹀

Chernomyrdin和叶利钦,当时的俄罗斯总统﹀

Because of this, Russia, which has experienced the wave of "shock therapy" and "privatization", even though most of the country's state-owned enterprises have been broken up due to poor management, Gazprom is still in the hands of the state.

因此,经历了“休克疗法”和“私有化”浪潮的俄罗斯,尽管该国大多数国有企业由于管理不善而被分拆,但俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司仍然掌握在国家手中。

Due to the state holding, oligarchs and Western capitalists have always been helpless to Gazprom. By the year 2000, natural gas exports had become Russia's most important means of increasing national income. After the vigorous state-owned wealth splitting frenzy at the end of the last century, the people have also realized the importance of state-owned resource-based enterprises to the national economy.

由于国家控股,寡头和西方资本家一直对俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司感到无奈。到2000年,天然气出口已成为俄罗斯增加国民收入的最重要手段。在上个世纪末狂热的国有财富疯狂分割之后,人民也意识到了国有资源型企业对国民经济的重要性。

In addition, after President Putin took office, his tough tactics against economic oligarchs boosted the Russian folk resource nationalist forces. Russia's natural gas sector has become the most protected industry in the country's economy because of its strategic position and practical significance. It has also been established as a model for the nationalization of Russian resource enterprises after Putin succeeded.

此外,普京总统就职后,他对经济寡头采取的强硬策略激起了俄罗斯民间资源民族主义力量。由于其战略地位和现实意义,俄罗斯的天然气部门已成为该国经济中最受保护的行业。普京成功后,它也被确立为俄罗斯资源企业国有化的典范。

Putin inspects Gazprom ﹀

普京检查俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

As a benchmark company, unlike other state-owned companies, Gazprom is the only monopoly company in Russia that is clearly protected by law, and it is also an energy company that has a complete upstream and downstream integrated industry in Russia.

与其他国有企业不同,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司是一家基准公司,是俄罗斯唯一一家受到法律明确保护的垄断公司,同时还是一家在俄罗斯拥有完整的上下游一体化产业的能源公司。

According to the "Russian Federation Natural Gas Export Law" passed in July 2006, Gazprom is the only authorized natural gas transportation and sales company in Russia. This means that as long as the natural gas is produced in Russia, it must be transported and sold through Gazprom's combined gas supply system (UGSS).

根据2006年7月通过的《俄罗斯联邦天然气出口法》,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司是俄罗斯唯一的授权天然气运输和销售公司。这意味着,只要在俄罗斯生产天然气,就必须通过俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的联合天然气供应系统(UGSS)进行运输和销售。

If other companies want to export natural gas, they must pay commissions and obtain Gazprom’s permission before they can export through Gazprom.

如果其他公司要出口天然气,则必须先支付佣金并获得俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的许可,然后才能通过俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司进行出口。

From Xinhua News Agency

来自新华社

Under the protection of the law, by monopolizing the natural gas industry, Gazprom quickly defeated private energy companies such as Novatek and controlled all natural gas pipelines in Russia and the right to transport the entire natural gas export.

在法律的保护下,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司通过垄断天然气行业,迅速击败了Novatek等私营能源公司,控制了俄罗斯的所有天然气管道以及运输整个天然气出口的权利。

What makes Russia gratifying is that the privileged Gazprom does provide a solid guarantee for Russia's economy. After the "Russian Federation Natural Gas Export Law" was promulgated, Gazprom controlled 65% of Russia's natural gas reserves and 20% of the world's natural gas reserves, produced 8% of Russia's industrial output value, and guaranteed 25% of the state budget.

让俄罗斯感到高兴的是,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的特权确实为俄罗斯的经济提供了坚实的保证。 《俄罗斯联邦天然气出口法》颁布后,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司控制了俄罗斯65%的天然气储量和20%的世界天然气储量,生产了俄罗斯8%的工业产值,并保证了25%的国家预算。

As of December 31, 2019, Gazprom's oil and gas reserves reached 34.899 trillion cubic meters (8 trillion cubic meters more than Qatar, which ranks third in the world in natural gas reserves), and natural gas condensate reserves were 1.5697 billion tons. The reserves are 2.057 billion tons.

截至2019年12月31日,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的石油和天然气储量达到34.899万亿立方米(比卡塔尔多8万亿立方米,在天然气储量方面居世界第三位),天然气凝析油储量为15.697亿吨。储量为20.57亿吨。

From Xinhua News Agency

来自新华社

In terms of production, in 2019, Gazprom extracted 500.1 billion cubic meters of natural gas and associated gas, 16.7 million tons of condensate gas and 40.8 million tons of oil. Gazprom alone produces 12% of the world's natural gas and expands its natural gas business to more than 50 countries.

在产量方面,2019年,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司开采了5001亿立方米天然气和伴生气,1670万吨冷凝水和4080万吨石油。仅俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司就生产了全球12%的天然气,并将其天然气业务扩展到50多个国家。

Oil and gas distribution in Russia﹀

俄罗斯的油气分布﹀

There is no doubt that in terms of natural gas reserves and production, Gazprom is the world's most well-deserved energy giant.

毫无疑问,就天然气储量和产量而言,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司是世界上最应得的能源巨头。

Not just gas

不只是汽油

As a giant star company, Russia's preference for Gazprom is not limited to the energy industry. With the support of the Russian government, in addition to natural gas, Gazprom also owns large-scale power, media, and financial assets. It also operates aviation and railway transportation, wireless communications, and IT. To

作为一家巨星公司,俄罗斯对俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的偏好不仅限于能源行业。在俄罗斯政府的支持下,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司除拥有天然气外,还拥有大型电力,媒体和金融资产。它还经营航空和铁路运输,无线通信和IT。至

The 175,200-kilometer natural gas pipeline is another major asset of Gazprom after the addition of natural gas reserves. The natural gas transmission system that can circle the earth three times enables Gazprom to easily export natural gas to East Asia and Europe.

在增加天然气储量之后,这条长达175200公里的天然气管道是俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的另一项主要资产。可以绕地球三圈的天然气传输系统使俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司可以轻松地将天然气出口到东亚和欧洲。

From Xinhua News Agency

来自新华社

In addition, Gazprom is Russia's largest power operator. It has 82 power stations with a total installed capacity of 3700×104kW, and ranks first among Russian power companies with 17% of the total installed capacity of Russia and a total power generation of 1728×108 kWh.

此外,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司是俄罗斯最大的电力运营商。它拥有82个电站,总装机容量为3700×104kW,位居俄罗斯电力公司之首,占俄罗斯总装机容量的17%,总发电量为1728×108 kWh。

A hydroelectric power plant in the Murmansk region under Gazprom﹀

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)下摩尔曼斯克地区的水力发电厂

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

Not only is it rich in assets in the basic industry, Gazprom's strength in the media industry is also amazing. Gazprom controls a number of large media companies, operates national television stations such as THT and HTB, and also owns shares in Russia's largest online video website and related advertising and real estate businesses.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司不仅在基础行业拥有丰富的资产,而且在媒体行业的实力也令人赞叹。俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司控制着许多大型媒体公司,经营THT和HTB等国家电视台,还拥有俄罗斯最大的在线视频网站以及相关的广告和房地产业务的股份。

Entertainment programs played by THT﹀

THT﹀播放的娱乐节目

From Russian Satellite News Agency

来自俄罗斯卫星通讯社

Satellite television broadcasting companies, publishing houses, film production companies, movie theaters, and six radio stations including the Voice of Moscow are all Gazprom's assets in the media industry.

卫星电视广播公司,出版社,电影制作公司,电影院和包括莫斯科之音在内的六个广播电台都是俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在媒体行业的资产。

For the all-round development of Gazprom, the financial industry is also an indispensable business territory. Under the active operation of Gazprom, Gazprombank has become Russia's third largest bank with total assets of more than four trillion rubles after 30 years of development. To

对于俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的全面发展,金融业也是必不可少的业务领域。在俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的积极运作下,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司经过30年的发展,已成为俄罗斯第三大银行,总资产超过4万亿卢布。至

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

According to the Fortune Global 500 statistics, Gazprom's total turnover in 2019 was as high as 118 billion U.S. dollars, while Russia's GDP that year was only 1.69 trillion U.S. dollars. In other words, the economic activities of a Gazprom company accounted for 14.3% of Russia's total.

据《财富》全球500强企业统计,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司2019年的总营业额高达1180亿美元,而俄罗斯当年的国内生产总值仅为1.69万亿美元。换句话说,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的经济活动占俄罗斯总量的14.3%。

According to statistics, Gazprom’s tax revenue also occupies an important proportion in Russia and is the single major source of Russian state fiscal revenue. The various taxes and fees paid by Gazprom in cash can account for 16.11% of the total tax revenue of the Russian Federation and local governments, that is, 1 ruble for every 6 rubles of government taxes at all levels in Russia comes from Gazprom.

据统计,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的税收收入在俄罗斯也占有重要比例,是俄罗斯国家财政收入的唯一主要来源。俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司以现金支付的各种税费可占俄罗斯联邦和地方政府税收总额的16.11%,也就是说,俄罗斯各级政府每6卢布政府税收中就有1卢布来自俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司。

From Russian Satellite News Agency

来自俄罗斯卫星通讯社

Not only domestically, but also Gazprom's overseas expansion has achieved remarkable results. Gazprom has participated in the development of natural gas in India, Iran, Malaysia and other countries, and firmly holds the right to supply natural gas in the world.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司不仅在国内,而且在海外的扩张也取得了显著成绩。俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司参与了印度,伊朗,马来西亚和其他国家的天然气开发,并坚定地拥有世界范围内的天然气供应权。

It can be said that among the major countries in the world, there is no other company involved in so many key industries like Gazprom and occupying such an important position in the national economy.

可以说,在世界主要国家中,没有其他公司参与俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司这样的重要行业,在国民经济中占有如此重要的地位。

Big family and big business﹀

大家庭,大生意﹀

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

National Pillar and Diplomatic Bargaining Chip

国家支柱与外交谈判筹码

Compared with Gazprom's high profile position in the Russian political arena, trillions of assets and 100 billion in revenue are just the tip of the iceberg of Gazprom's super strength. This is because Gazprom is not only the main source of Russian national tax revenue, but also an important tool in Russia's internal and external affairs and energy politics.

与俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在俄罗斯政治舞台上的知名度相比,数万亿美元的资产和1000亿美元的收入只是俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司超强实力的冰山一角。这是因为俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司不仅是俄罗斯国家税收的主要来源,而且还是俄罗斯内部和外部事务以及能源政治的重要工具。

In the Russian political arena, the political rank of the highest corporate leadership is an important reflection of its comprehensive status. Especially after Putin came to power, in order to better fight the domestic "oligarchs", many senior officials of President Putin, including the prime minister and cabinet ministers, began to concurrently serve as the top corporate leaders.

在俄罗斯的政治舞台上,最高企业领导层的政治地位是其综合地位的重要体现。特别是普京上台后,为了更好地与国内“寡头”作斗争,普京总统的许多高级官员,包括总理和内阁大臣,开始兼任公司最高领导人。

Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov, Chairman of the Gazprom Board of Directors,

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司董事会主席Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov,

Once served as Prime Minister of Russia from 2007 to 2008﹀

曾于2007年至2008年担任俄罗斯总理﹀

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

Gazprom has always been regarded as the cradle of the growth of national leaders and the training ground for senior government officials. Whether it is the ministry system of the former Soviet Union or the current company system, compared with other Russian state-controlled companies, the top head of Gazprom has always been the highest political rank among all industries and companies in Russia.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司一直被视为国家领导人成长的摇篮和政府高级官员的训练场。无论是前苏联的部委系统还是当前的公司系统,与其他俄罗斯国有公司相比,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的最高领导人一直是俄罗斯所有行业和公司中最高的政治职位。

This shows that the top managers of Gazprom are directly assigned to the Kremlin and are important executors of the country's high-level internal and diplomatic intentions. They either come from the power center of Russia, or they are likely to hold important positions in the country or government in the future.

这表明,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的高级管理人员被直接分配到克里姆林宫,并且是该国高层内部和外交意图的重要执行者。他们要么来自俄罗斯的电力中心,要么将来可能在该国或政府中担任重要职务。

In addition to having an unparalleled political aura in Russia's domestic political arena, Gazprom is also an important bargaining chip in Russian diplomatic negotiations. Whether it is natural gas procurement negotiations with Asian buyers such as China, Japan, and South Korea, or sanctions against the Poroshenko government during the "Ukraine crisis," Gazprom has always been on the front line of Russia's foreign affairs.

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司除了在俄罗斯国内政治舞台上拥有无与伦比的政治光环外,还是俄罗斯外交谈判中的一个重要筹码。无论是与中国,日本和韩国等亚洲买家进行天然气采购谈判,还是在“乌克兰危机”期间对波罗申科政府实施制裁,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司始终站在俄罗斯外交事务的前线。

From CCTV

从中央电视台

The economy must serve politics, especially the energy economy, which is closely connected with politics. Under the political situation of Russia, Gazprom has formed a foreign business strategy of "containing Asia, suppressing the CIS, and asking for Europe".

经济必须服务于政治,特别是与政治密切相关的能源经济。在俄罗斯的政治形势下,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司已经制定了“遏制亚洲,压制独联体和要求欧洲”的外国商业战略。

In the Asia-Pacific market, because the fast-growing economies of East Asian countries cannot do without the stable supply of energy, Gazprom takes the natural gas trade as an important bargaining chip, and at the same time allows China, Japan and South Korea to contain each other and form competition.

在亚太市场上,由于东亚国家的快速增长的经济离不开稳定的能源供应,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司将天然气贸易作为重要的筹码,同时允许中国,日本和韩国互相包容,形成竞争。

Especially after the Fukushima nuclear crisis in Japan in 2010, the Japanese market's demand for natural gas increased significantly, causing a temporary imbalance of supply and demand in the East Asian natural gas market.

特别是在2010年日本福岛核危机之后,日本市场对天然气的需求显着增加,从而导致东亚天然气市场的供求关系暂时失衡。

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

In order to obtain the best benefits, Gazprom emphasized Japan's demand in the Sino-Russian natural gas negotiations to increase the asking price; on the other hand, it promoted Sino-Russian cooperation in the Japan-Russia natural gas negotiations to suppress Japan's acceptance of the offer.

为了获得最大的利益,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在中俄天然气谈判中强调了日本对提高要价的需求。另一方面,它在日俄天然气谈判中促进了中俄合作,以压制日本对这一提议的接受。

In the natural gas game between China and Russia for more than 20 years, Gazprom has always hoped to obtain a natural gas export price equal to or higher than the European market in its natural gas sales to China.

在20多年的中俄天然气博弈中,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司一直希望获得的对华天然气出口价格等于或高于欧洲市场。

In the early 2000s, China’s natural gas import price to Russia was US$100 per thousand cubic meters, while Gazprom’s natural gas export price to Europe reached US$120 per thousand cubic meters.

在2000年代初,中国对俄罗斯的天然气进口价格为每千立方米100美元,而俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司对欧洲的天然气出口价格为每千立方米120美元。

In 2007, PetroChina’s offer to Gazprom rose to US$195 per thousand cubic meters. When the international oil price reached 140 US dollars per barrel in 2008, the price of Russian natural gas exports to Europe has climbed to nearly 500 US dollars per thousand cubic meters. Increasing price divergence has caused both parties to negotiate without reporting any expectations.

2007年,中石油对俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的报价升至每千立方米195美元。当2008年国际石油价格达到每桶140美元时,俄罗斯对欧洲的天然气出口价格已攀升至每千立方米近500美元。价格差异加剧导致双方进行谈判而未报告任何期望。

However, the “Ukraine crisis” that broke out in 2014 completely reversed the situation of both parties. Russia, with its domestic and foreign difficulties, has been severely sanctioned by Western countries, and urgently needs political and economic support from major eastern countries.

但是,2014年爆发的“乌克兰危机”彻底扭转了双方的局面。俄罗斯在国内外面临困境,受到西方国家的严厉制裁,迫切需要主要东方国家的政治和经济支持。

At the instruction of President Putin, Gazprom President Miller began frequent contacts with China. And on May 21, 2014, the last moment before President Putin left Shanghai and returned to Moscow, a 30-year natural gas cooperation agreement with a total value of up to 400 billion US dollars was successfully signed.

在普京总统的指示下,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司总裁米勒开始与中国频繁接触。 2014年5月21日,在普京总统离开上海回到莫斯科的最后时刻,成功签署了为期30年,总额达4,000亿美元的天然气合作协议。

From Xinhua News Agency

来自新华社

Miller, President of Gazprom, at the Sino-Russian gas pipeline construction site﹀

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司总裁米勒在中俄天然气管道建设工地﹀

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

Different from the containment of Asian buyers, the Russian government and Gazprom's attitude towards the CIS countries is much more complicated. In order to try to reduce or prevent natural gas resources in Central Asia from reaching the consumer market directly without passing through Russia, Gazprom invested a large amount of economic and political resources to mediate with Central Asian countries, and finally reached a "net price" acquisition agreement with Central Asian countries. This ensures its direct control over natural gas exports to Central Asian countries.

与遏制亚洲买家不同,俄罗斯政府和俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司对独联体国家的态度要复杂得多。为了试图减少或阻止中亚的天然气资源不经过俄罗斯直接进入消费市场,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司投入了大量的经济和政治资源与中亚国家进行调解,最终达到了“净价”与中亚国家的收购协议。这确保了其对出口到中亚国家的天然气的直接控制。

In the Ukraine crisis in 2014, Gazprom played an important role in suppressing Ukraine. In order to put pressure on the Poroshenko government, Gazprom cut off the supply of natural gas to Ukraine on the grounds that Ukraine was in arrears in natural gas fees. This is undoubtedly an economic disaster for Ukraine, which relies on Russian gas for as much as 70%.

在2014年的乌克兰危机中,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在压制乌克兰方面发挥了重要作用。为了向波罗申科政府施加压力,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司以乌克兰拖欠天然气费为由,切断了向乌克兰的天然气供应。对于乌克兰来说,这无疑是一场经济灾难,乌克兰高达70%的天然气来自俄罗斯。

"Stop your breath" when you are upset ﹀

沮丧时“停止呼吸” breath

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

Not only Ukraine, but other Western European countries also rely on Russian natural gas to varying degrees. As early as 1993, Gazprom signed natural gas supply agreements with France, Finland, Italy and Poland.

不仅乌克兰,而且其他西欧国家也不同程度地依赖俄罗斯天然气。早在1993年,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司就与法国,芬兰,意大利和波兰签署了天然气供应协议。

Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland are completely dependent on Russia for their natural gas supply. In the other seven countries, at least more than half of their natural gas comes from Russia. Germany, France, Italy and other core EU member states have 28%, 9%, and 38% dependence on Russian natural gas.

保加利亚,捷克共和国,爱沙尼亚,拉脱维亚,立陶宛和芬兰完全依赖俄罗斯提供天然气。在其他七个国家中,至少有一半以上的天然气来自俄罗斯。德国,法国,意大利和其他欧盟核心成员国对俄罗斯天然气的依赖程度分别为28%,9%和38%。

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

In the long-term energy cooperation, Gazprom has accounted for a quarter of the total imported natural gas in Europe. In particular, the implementation of natural gas pipeline projects such as "Beixi No. 2" and "Turkish Creek" has further expanded Gazprom's share of the European natural gas market.

在长期的能源合作中,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司占欧洲天然气进口总量的四分之一。尤其是天然气管道项目的实施,例如“北二号”和“土耳其小河”,进一步扩大了俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司在欧洲天然气市场的份额。

Although the Western countries are bent on getting rid of Russia’s energy dependence, Gazprom’s superb political skills can resolve the energy countermeasures of European countries every time.

尽管西方国家一心一意摆脱俄罗斯对能源的依赖,但俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的精湛政治技巧每次都能解决欧洲国家的能源对策。

As the actual controller behind Gazprom, Putin, who is an agent, is clever. In 2005, in order to deepen the energy bundling between Germany and Russia, Putin instructed Gazprom to hire former German Chancellor Schroeder as the chairman of the committee for the Beixi pipeline project.

作为俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的实际控制人,普京是一名代理,很聪明。 2005年,为了加深德国与俄罗斯之间的能源捆绑,普京指示俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司聘请德国前总理施罗德担任北溪管道项目委员会主席。

Relying on the political prestige of the former German Chancellor, Schroeder successfully lobbied all parties. Gazprom quickly gained recognition within Germany. Not only was the "Beixi Pipeline No. 1" successfully completed, but even the "Beixi No. 2 Line" was not hindered too much.

施罗德依靠前德国总理的政治声望成功游说了所有政党。俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司很快在德国获得认可。不仅成功完成了“北溪一号线”,甚至也没有太多阻碍“北溪二号线”。

Former German Chancellor Schroeder﹀

前德国总理施罗德

From shutterstock

从百叶窗

The frustrated chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, Tom Lantos, saw that the cooperation between Germany and Russia became closer but could not be stopped. He even compared Schroeder to a "political prostitute."

受挫的美国众议院外交事务委员会主席汤姆·兰托斯(Tom Lantos)看到,德国与俄罗斯之间的合作越来越紧密,但不能停止。他甚至将施罗德比作“政治妓女”。

In this way, Gazprom successfully built Schroeder into Russia's agent, deeply binding Germany and Russia. This has made Germany's attitude in handling relations with Russia always too soft, and made Germany a key link in Russia's leveraging of European politics and even Western politics.

这样,俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司成功地将施罗德(Schroeder)建成了俄罗斯的代理商,对德国和俄罗斯产生了深远的约束。这使得德国在处理对俄关系方面的态度永远太软弱,并使德国成为俄罗斯利用欧洲政治乃至西方政治的重要纽带。

With many years of operation of Gazprom, European countries have been inseparable from Russia's natural gas supply. Because of this, whenever Western countries swing their sanctions against Russia, they have to weigh the consequences of the cut off natural gas supply.

随着俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的运营多年,欧洲国家与俄罗斯的天然气供应密不可分。因此,每当西方国家对俄罗斯实施制裁时,他们都必须权衡切断天然气供应的后果。

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IFLYTEK将为您阅读

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This article is about NetEase News • NetEase New Humanities Wave Plan Signed Account • Geo Valley Original Content

本文是关于网易新闻•网易新人文浪潮计划签名帐户•Geo Valley原创内容

Author l Onion with black eyes, an international current affairs tracker in the ancient northwestern city

作者l戴着黑眼睛的洋葱,这个古老的西北城市的国际时事追踪者

References l State capitalism, privatization, and elite struggles-the dual logic of the recent "state-capital" relationship in Russia. Zhang Xin;

参考文献l国家资本主义,私有化和精英斗争-俄罗斯最近的“国家-资本”关系的双重逻辑。张欣

Credit rating report on Rosneft. Standard & Poor's;

俄罗斯石油公司的信用评级报告。标准普尔

Gazprom. 2019 annual report;

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司。 2019年年度报告;

Sino-Russian energy cooperation: progress, motivation and impact. Hao Yubiao, Tian Chunsheng;

中俄能源合作:进步,动力和影响。郝玉标,田春生;

The situation in the Russian gas field and the market competition among major companies. Eurasian economy. Xu Xiangmei; The impact of European and American economic sanctions on Russian oil and gas companies. Lu Jingze;

俄罗斯天然气领域的形势和主要公司之间的市场竞争。欧亚经济。徐香梅欧美经济制裁对俄罗斯石油和天然气公司的影响。陆敬泽

Research on the Status and Development Strategy of Gazprom. Xiao Fei Meng Shuo

俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司的现状和发展战略研究。小飞梦说

* This article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of Geo Valley

*本文由作者提供,不代表地理谷的位置

Geo Valley | Geographical

地理谷|地域性

Complex world geodeconstruction

复杂的世界地质构造

 
 
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